Volume 16, Issue 2 (June 2018)                   IRJ 2018, 16(2): 155-162 | Back to browse issues page


XML Print


1- Department of Speech Therapy, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2- Institute of Linguistics, Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies, Tehran, Iran.
3- Department of General Linguistics, Farhangian University, Sanandaj, Iran.
4- Department of Biostatistics, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (344 Views)

Objectives: The present research aims to study the normal development of Percentage of Consonant Correct (PCC) in Kurdish-speaking children, with Middle Kurmanji-Mukryani Dialect as an Articulation Competency Index (ACI). PCC was examined in terms of the manner of articulation and position of sound in the word. 
Methods: In this descriptoanalytical cross-sectional study, 120 Kurdish-speaking children aged 3-5 years were evaluated by a Kurdish phonetic test. Participants were selected randomly from health centers and nursery schools in Bukan City, Iran. Nonparametric statistical tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann–Whitney U were used to analyze data through SPSS software (version 19).
Results: The percentage of accuracy of Kurdish language consonants gradually increased from 3 to 5 years. The results did not show any significant difference between the girls and boys (P>0.05), although girls showed better performance than boys. Kurdish-speaking children were more accurate in the pronunciation of nasal, glide, lateral, stop and flap than fricative, affricative and trill consonants. Consonants in the initial position were produced better and were more precise than consonants in the medial and final position.
Discussion: PCC is an important and helpful index for speech and language pathologists, who are involved in assessment and treatment of Kurdish-speaking children. The results of this study showed that the PCC in Kurdish-speaking children with Middle Kurmanji-Mukryani Dialect increased with age and it was related to the manner of articulation and the position of sound in words. 

Full-Text [PDF 771 kb]   (148 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (46 Views)  
Type of Study: Original Research Articles | Subject: Speech therapy
Received: 2017/08/26 | Accepted: 2018/01/28 | Published: 2018/06/1

References
1. Broomfield J, Dodd B. The nature of referred subtypes of primary speech disability. Child Language Teaching and Therapy. 2004; 20(2):135-51. [DOI:10.1191/0265659004ct267oa] [DOI:10.1191/0265659004ct267oa]
2. McLeod S, Harrison LJ. Epidemiology of speech and language impairment in a nationally representative sample of 4-to 5-year-old children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 2009; 52(5):1213-29. [DOI:10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0085)] [DOI:10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0085)]
3. Jessup B, Ward E, Cahill L, Keating D. Prevalence of speech and/or language impairment in preparatory students in northern Tasmania. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. 2008; 10(5):364-77. [DOI:10.1080/17549500701871171] [PMID] [DOI:10.1080/17549500701871171]
4. Law J, Boyle J, Harris F, Harkness A, Nye C. Prevalence and natural history of primary speech and language delay: findings from a systematic review of the literature. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders. 2000; 35(2):165-88. [DOI:10.1080/136828200247133] [DOI:10.1080/136828200247133]
5. Zarifian T, Modarresi Y, Tehrani LG, Kazemi MD, Salavati M. The Persian version of phonological test of diagnostic evaluation articulation and phonology for Persian speaking children and investigating its validity and reliability. Auditory and Vestibular Research. 2017; 23(4):10-20.
6. Bishop DV, Adams C. A prospective study of the relationship between specific language impairment, phonological disorders and reading retardation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 1990; 31(7):1027-50. [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1990.tb00844.x] [PMID] [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1990.tb00844.x]
7. Gangji N, Pascoe M, Smouse M. Swahili speech development: preliminary normative data from typically developing pre-school children in Tanzania. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. 2015; 50(2):151-64. [DOI:10.1111/1460-6984.12118] [PMID] [DOI:10.1111/1460-6984.12118]
8. Nathan L, Stackhouse J, Goulandris N, Snowling MJ. The development of early literacy skills among children with speech difficulties: A test of the critical age hypothesis. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 2004; 47(2):377-91. [DOI:10.1044/1092-4388(2004/031)] [DOI:10.1044/1092-4388(2004/031)]
9. Shriberg LD, Austin D, Lewis BA, McSweeny JL, Wilson DL. The Percentage of Consonants Correct (PCC) metric: Extensions and reliability data. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 1997; 40(4):708-22. [DOI:10.1044/jslhr.4004.708] [DOI:10.1044/jslhr.4004.708]
10. Shriberg LD, Kwiatkowski J. Phonological disorders III: A procedure for assessing severity of involvement. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders. 1982; 47(3):256-70.[DOI:10.1044/jshd.4703.256] [PMID] [DOI:10.1044/jshd.4703.256]
11. Shriberg LD, Austin D, Lewis BA, McSweeny JL, Wilson DL. The Percentage of Consonants Correct (PCC) metric: Extensions and reliability data. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 1997; 40(4):708-22. [DOI:10.1044/jslhr.4004.708] [DOI:10.1044/jslhr.4004.708]
12. Bernthal JE, Bankson NW, Flipsen P. Articulation and phonological disorders: Speech sound disorders in children. New York: Pearson; 2009. [PMID] [PMID]
13. McLeod S. The international guide to speech acquisition. Clifton Park, New York: Thomson Delmar Learning; 2007.
14. Amayreh MM, Dyson AT. The acquisition of Arabic consonants. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 1998; 41(3):642-53.[DOI:10.1044/jslhr.4103.642] [PMID] [DOI:10.1044/jslhr.4103.642]
15. Yalçınkaya F, Bayar Muluk N, Budak B. Speech sounds acquisition evaluated by Speech Sound Development Test (SSDT) in Turkish-Speaking children. The Journal of International Advanced Otology. 2010; 6(1):60-6.
16. Phoon HS, Abdullah AC, Lee LW, Murugaiah P. Consonant acquisition in the Malay language: A cross-sectional study of preschool aged Malay children. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics. 2014; 28(5):329-45. [DOI:10.3109/02699206.2013.868517] [PMID] [DOI:10.3109/02699206.2013.868517]
17. Gangji N. Phonological development in Swahili: A descriptive, cross-sectional study of typically developing pre-schoolers in Tanzania (PhD dissertation). Cape Town: University of Cape Town; 2012. [PMCID]
18. Zarifian T, Modaresi Y, Dastjerdi M, Salavati M. Percentage of correct consonants in Persian speaking children and its psychometric features. Journal of Exceptional Children. 2013; 13(4):46-53.
19. Fox AV, Dodd B. Phonologically disordered German-Speaking Children. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. 2001; 10(3):291-307. [DOI:10.1044/1058-0360(2001/026)] [DOI:10.1044/1058-0360(2001/026)]
20. Brice AE, Carson CK, Dennis O'Brien J. Spanish-English articulation and phonology of 4-and 5-year-old preschool children: An initial investigation. Communication Disorders Quarterly. 2009; 31(1):3-14. [DOI:10.1177/1525740108327447] [DOI:10.1177/1525740108327447]
21. Phoon HS. The phonological development of Malaysian English Speaking Chinese children: A normative study (PhD dissertation). New Zealand: University of Canterbury; 2010.
22. MacLeod AA, Sutton A, Trudeau N, Thordardottir E. The acquisition of consonants in Québécois French: A cross-sectional study of pre-school aged children. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. 2011; 13(2):93-109. [DOI:10.3109/17549507.2011.487543] [PMID] [DOI:10.3109/17549507.2011.487543]
23. Hua Z, Dodd B. The phonological acquisition of Putonghua (modern standard Chinese). Journal of Child Language. 2000; 27(1):3-42. [DOI:10.1017/S030500099900402X] [PMID] [DOI:10.1017/S030500099900402X]
24. Zarifian T, Modaresi Y, Dastjerdi M, Salavati M. Percentage of correct consonants in Persian speaking children and its psychometric features. Journal of Exceptional Children. 2013; 13(4):46-53.
25. Dodd B, Holm A, Hua Z, Crosbie S. Phonological development: a normative study of British English-speaking children. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics. 2003; 17(8):617-43. [DOI:10.1080/0269920031000111348] [PMID] [DOI:10.1080/0269920031000111348]
26. Minorsky V. Mongol place-names in Mukri Kurdistan. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 1957; 19(1):58-81. [DOI:10.1017/s0041977x00119202] [DOI:10.1017/S0041977X00119202]
27. Kreyenbroek PG. On the Kurdish language: The Kurds. Abingdon: Routledge; 2005.
28. Asher RE, Simpson JM. The encyclopedia of language and linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon Press; 1993. [PMCID]
29. Rahimpour M, Dovaise MS. A phonological contrastive analysis of Kurdish and English. International Journal of English Linguistics. 2011; 1(2):73. [DOI:10.5539/ijel.v1n2p73] [DOI:10.5539/ijel.v1n2p73]
30. Parhizi A. [The weight of Kurdish poetry and matching with Persian poetry weight (Persian)]. Tehran: Ketab-e zaman; 2008.
31. Rokhzadi A. [Phonetics and grammar in Kurdish Language (Persian)]. Sanandj: Kurdistan Publication; 2011.
32. Haig G, Matras Y. Kurdish linguistics: A brief overview. STUF - Language Typology and Universals. 2002; 55(1):3-14. [DOI:10.1524/stuf.2002.55.1.3] [DOI:10.1524/stuf.2002.55.1.3]
33. Zahedi MS, Alinezhad B, Rezai V. The sonority sequencing principle in Sanandaji/Erdelani Kurdish: An optimality theoretical perspective. International Journal of English Linguistics. 2012; 2(5):72. [DOI:10.5539/ijel.v2n5p72] [DOI:10.5539/ijel.v2n5p72]
34. Karimidustan GhH. [Syllable structure in Kurdish language (Persian)]. Journal of Faculty of Literature and Humanities of Mashhad. 2003; 35(1-2):235-48.
35. Kalbasi I. [Mahabadi dialect of Kurdish (Persian)]. Tehran: Institute for Cultural Studies and Research; 1983.
36. Haresabadi F, Ebadi A, Shirazi TS, Dastjerdi Kazemi M. Design and validation of a Photographic Expressive Persian Grammar Test for children aged 4–6 years. Child Language Teaching and Therapy. 2016; 32(2):193-204. [DOI:10.1177/0265659015595445] [DOI:10.1177/0265659015595445]
37. Lawshe CH. A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel psychology. 1975; 28(4):563-75.[DOI:10.1111/j.1744-6570.1975.tb01393.x] [DOI:10.1111/j.1744-6570.1975.tb01393.x]
38. Fatemi Syadar Sh. [The study of consonant acquisition in 3-5 years Kurdish-speaking children in Bukan (Persian)] (MSc. thesis). Tehran: University of Social Welfar and Rehabilitation Sciences; 2016.
39. Ingram D. Phonological disability in children. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company; 1977.
40. Grunwell P. Clinical Phonology. London: Croom Helm; 1987. [PMID] [PMCID] [PMID] [PMCID]
41. Shriberg LD, Tomblin JB, McSweeny JL. Prevalence of speech delay in 6-year-old children and comorbidity with language impairment. Journal of speech, language, and hearing research. 1999; 42(6):1461-81. [DOI:10.1044/jslhr.4206.1461] [DOI:10.1044/jslhr.4206.1461]