Volume 16, Issue 1 (March 2018)                   IRJ 2018, 16(1): 61-68 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

1- Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (1076 Views)

Objectives: Cognitive flexibility, shame, and emotion regulation difficulties are considered potential mediating factors that may explain the relationship between neuroticism and depression severity. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating role of cognitive flexibility, shame and emotion dysregulation in the relationship between neuroticism and depression among university students.
Methods: A total of 271 students (102 males and 169 females) were selected by cluster random sampling from University of Tehran, Allameh Tabataba’i University, and Iran University of Science & Technology. Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI), Test of Self-Conscious Affect-2 (TOSCA-2), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), NEO Five-Factor Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) were used to collect the data. Pearson correlation, multiple regression, and path analysis were applied for data analysis.
Results: It was found that neuroticism was significantly associated with depression and all three mediators (P<0.0001). Neuroticism by means of emotion dysregulation was the only significant indirect effect on depression (P<0.0001). First total mediation model had a poor fit to the data, CMIN=87, P<0.0001, CMIN/df=21.75, CFI=82, RMSEA=28.
Discussion: These findings suggest that for student depression, emotion dysregulation might be important and future intervention works can examine the effects of targeting emotion dysregulation among university students with high levels of neuroticism and/or depression.

Full-Text [PDF 621 kb]   (337 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (126 Views)  
Type of Study: Original Research Articles | Subject: Psychology
Received: 2017/06/16 | Accepted: 2017/10/21 | Published: 2018/03/1

1. PJ, Sharp C. Emotion dysregulation, psychological inflexibility, and shame as explanatory factors between neuroticism and depression. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2016; 190:376–85. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2015.10.014 [DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.10.014]
2. Lahey BB. Public health significance of neuroticism. American Psychologist. 2009; 64(4):241–56. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0015309 [DOI:10.1037/a0015309]
3. Costa PT, McCrae RR. Neuroticism, somatic complaints, and disease: Is the bark worse than the bite. Journal of Personality. 1987; 55(2):299–316. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1987.tb00438.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1987.tb00438.x]
4. Barnhofer T, Chittka T. Cognitive reactivity mediates the relationship between neuroticism and depression. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2010; 48(4):275–81. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2009.12.005 [DOI:10.1016/j.brat.2009.12.005]
5. Hankin BL. Depression from childhood through adolescence: risk mechanisms across multiple systems and levels of analysis. Current Opinion in Psychology. 2015; 4:13–20. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.01.003 [DOI:10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.01.003]
6. Dennis JP, Vander Wal JS. The cognitive flexibility inventory: Instrument development and estimates of reliability and validity. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 2010; 34(3):241–53. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10608-009-9276-4 [DOI:10.1007/s10608-009-9276-4]
7. Hirt ER, Devers EE, McCrea SM. I want to be creative: Exploring the role of hedonic contingency theory in the positive mood-cognitive flexibility link. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2008; 94(2):214–30. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514. [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.]
8. Dearing RL, Stuewig J, Tangney JP. On the importance of distinguishing shame from guilt: Relations to problematic alcohol and drug use. Addictive Behaviors. 2005; 30(7):1392–404. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2005.02.002 [DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2005.02.002]
9. Webb M, Heisler D, Call S, Chickering SA, Colburn TA. Shame, guilt, symptoms of depression, and reported history of psychological maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect. 2007; 31(11-12):1143–53. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2007.09.003 [DOI:10.1016/j.chiabu.2007.09.003]
10. Weingarden H, Renshaw KD, Wilhelm S, Tangney JP, DiMauro J. Anxiety and shame as risk factors for depression, suicidality, and functional impairment in body dysmorphic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 2016; 204(11):832–9. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/nmd.0000000000000498 [DOI:10.1097/NMD.0000000000000498]
11. Erden S, Akbağ M. How do personality traits effect shame and guilt: An evaluation of the Turkish culture. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research. 2015; 15(58):113-132. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.14689/ejer.2015.58.4 [DOI:10.14689/ejer.2015.58.4]
12. Paulus DJ, Vanwoerden S, Norton PJ, Sharp C. From neuroticism to anxiety: Examining unique contributions of three transdiagnostic vulnerability factors. Personality and Individual Differences. 2016; 94:38–43. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.01.012 [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2016.01.012]
13. Gratz KL, Roemer L. Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Development, factor structure, and initial validation of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment. 2008; 30(4):315–315. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10862-008-9102-4 [DOI:10.1007/s10862-008-9102-4]
14. Abravanel BT, Sinha R. Emotion dysregulation mediates the relationship between lifetime cumulative adversity and depressive symptomatology. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 2015; 61:89–96. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.11.012 [DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.11.012]
15. Iqbal N, Dar KA. Negative affectivity, depression, and anxiety: Does rumination mediate the links. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2015; 181:18–23. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2015.04.002 [DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.04.002]
16. Tangney JP, Stuewig J, Mashek DJ. Moral emotions and moral behavior. Annual Review of Psychology. 2007; 58(1):345–72. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070145 [DOI:10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070145]
17. Bayes A, Parker G, McClure G. Emotional dysregulation in those with bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder and their comorbid expression. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2016; 204:103–11. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2016.06.027 [DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2016.06.027]
18. Levinson CA, Byrne M, Rodebaugh TL. Shame and guilt as shared vulnerability factors: Shame, but not guilt, prospectively predicts both social anxiety and bulimic symptoms. Eating Behaviors. 2016; 22:188–93. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2016.06.016 [DOI:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2016.06.016]
19. Andrés ML, Richaud de Minzi MC, Casta-eiras C, Canet-Juric L, Rodríguez Carvajal R. Neuroticism and depression in children: The role of cognitive emotion regulation strategies. The Journal of Genetic Psychology. 2016; 177(2):55–71. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221325.2016.1148659 [DOI:10.1080/00221325.2016.1148659]
20. Johnco C, Wuthrich VM, Rapee RM. Reliability and validity of two self-report measures of cognitive flexibility. Psychological Assessment. 2014; 26(4):1381–7. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0038009 [DOI:10.1037/a0038009]
21. Shareh H, Farmani A, Soltani E. Investigating the reliability and validity of the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI-I) among Iranian university students. Practice in Clinical Psychology. 2014; 2(1):43-50.
22. Tangney JP, Ferguson TJ, Wagner PE, Crowley SL, Gramzow R. The test of self-conscious affect, version 2 (TOSCA-2). Fairfax, VA: George Mason University; 1996. [PMCID]
23. Shams J, Azizi A, Mirzaei A. [Correlation between distress tolerance and emotional regulation with students smoking dependence (Persian)]. Hakim Research Journal. 2010; 13(1):11-8.
24. Costa PT, McCrea RR. Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO PI-R) and NEO five-factor inventory (NEO-FFI). Florida: Psychological Assessment Resources; 1992.
25. Anisi J, Majdiyan M, Joshanloo M, Ghoharikamel Z. Validity and reliability of NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) on university students. International Journal of Behavioral Sciences. 2011; 5(4):351-5.
26. Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation; 1996.
27. Stefan Dabson K, Mohammadkhani P, Massah Choulabi O. [Psychometrics characteristic of Beck Depression Inventory-II in patients with magor depressive disorder (Persian)]. Archives of Rehabilitation. 2007; 8:82-0.
28. Osborne JW, Overbay A. The power of outliers (and why researchers should always check for them). Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation. 2004; 9(6):1-2.
29. De Lissnyder E, Koster EHW, Derakshan N, De Raedt R. The association between depressive symptoms and executive control impairments in response to emotional and non-emotional information. Cognition & Emotion. 2010; 24(2):264–80. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699930903378354 [DOI:10.1080/02699930903378354]
30. Verdejo Garcia A, Clark L, Verdejo Roman J, Albein Urios N, Martinez Gonzalez JM, Gutierrez B, et al. Neural substrates of cognitive flexibility in cocaine and gambling addictions. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 2015; 207(2):158–64. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.114.152223 [DOI:10.1192/bjp.bp.114.152223]
31. Yoon KL, Maltby J, Joormann J. A pathway from neuroticism to depression: examining the role of emotion regulation. Anxiety, Stress & Coping. 2013; 26(5):558–72. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2012.734810 [DOI:10.1080/10615806.2012.734810]
32. Hofmann SG, Sawyer AT, Fang A, Asnaani A. Emotion dysregulation model of mood and anxiety disorders. Depress Anxiety. 2012; 29(5):409–16. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.21888 [DOI:10.1002/da.21888]
33. Arch JJ, Eifert GH, Davies C, Vilardaga JCP, Rose RD, Craske MG. Randomized clinical trial of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for mixed anxiety disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2012; 80(5):750–65. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0028310 [DOI:10.1037/a0028310]
34. Kovacs M, Sherrill J, George CJ, Pollock M, Tumuluru R V, Ho V. Contextual emotion-regulation therapy for childhood depression: Description and pilot testing of a new intervention. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2006; 45(8):892–903. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000222878.74162.5a [DOI:10.1097/01.chi.0000222878.74162.5a]
35. Mennin DS, Fresco DM, Ritter M, Heimberg RG. An open trial of emotion regulation therapy for generalized anxiety disorder and cooccurring depression. Depression and Anxiety. 2015; 32(8):614–23. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.22377 [DOI:10.1002/da.22377]
36. Menin DS, Fresco DM, Heimberg RG, An open trial of emotion regilation therapy for generalized anxiety disorder and cooccurring depression. Depression and Anxiety. 2015; 32(8):614-23. Available from: http://dx.doi. org/10.1002/da.22377 [DOI:10.1002/da.22377]