Volume 15, Issue 4 (December 2017)                   IRJ 2017, 15(4): 317-324 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

1- Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (834 Views)

Objectives: The primary goal of this study was to identify the determinants of mother’s authoritative parenting style upon the ecological model of parenting. There are some factors involved in this model such as a parent (i.e. developmental history, personality), and child characteristics (i.e. temperament and developmental issues) and environmental factors.
Methods: The statistic population of this study includes mothers in Tehran having preschool children between 4–6 years old. By convenient sampling, eight kindergarten schools were selected, and mothers completed the questionnaires. The sample consisted of 157 mothers who had the authoritative parenting style based on the score of Baumrind’s parenting style questionnaire. The participants completed the questionnaires and data was analyzed with regression analysis.
Results: The parent’s neuroticism (r=-0.253, P<0.01), social support (r=-0.200, P<0.05) and some temperamental characteristics of child i.e. excitability (r=-0.526, P<0.01) and activity (r=-0.163, P<0.05) were significant variables in prediction of authoritative parenting style.
Discussion: This study enhances our understanding of the primary determinants of authoritative parenting style in Iranian mothers. The authoritative parenting style is a function of interactional mother and child characteristic and contextual components. These parents had a low score on neuroticism. Therefore, they had emotional stability and could manage their impulse and negative emotions about child maltreatment. Also, their children had low scores in excitability and a high score in sociability. Additionally, the authoritative mothers had weak social support. One explanation for this result is that  mothers are the autonomy people and stand on their own rules and had little need to others.

Full-Text [PDF 525 kb]   (293 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (81 Views)  
Type of Study: Original Research Articles | Subject: Psychology
Received: 2017/03/1 | Accepted: 2017/06/1 | Published: 2017/12/1

1. Allen JG, Fonagy P. The handbook of mentalization-based treatment. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons; 2006. [DOI:10.1002/9780470712986]
2. Atella LD, DiPietro JA, Smith BA, St James-Roberts I. More than meets the eye: Parental and infant contributors to maternal and paternal reports of early infant difficultness. Parenting: Science and Practice. 2003; 3(4):265-84. doi: 10.1207/s15327922par0304_1 [DOI:10.1207/s15327922par0304_1]
3. Van Bakel HJ, Riksen-Walraven JM. Parenting and development of one-year-olds: links with parental, contextual, and child characteristics. Child Development. 2002; 73(1):256-73. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00404 [DOI:10.1111/1467-8624.00404]
4. Blandon AY, Calkins SD, Keane SP, O'brien M. Contributions of child's physiology and maternal behavior to children's trajectories of temperamental reactivity. Developmental Psychology. 2010; 46(5):1089-1102. doi: 10.1037/a0020678 [DOI:10.1037/a0020678]
5. Belsky J. The determinants of parenting: A process model. Child Development. 1984; 55(1):83-96. doi: 10.2307/1129836 [DOI:10.2307/1129836]
6. Carpenter JL, Mendez J. Adaptive and challenged parenting among African American mothers: Parenting profiles relate to head start children's aggression and hyperactivity. Early Education & Development. 2013; 24(2):233-52. doi: 10.1080/10409289.2013.749762 [DOI:10.1080/10409289.2013.749762]
7. Chang H, Olson SL, Sameroff AJ, Sexton HR. Child effortful control as a mediator of parenting practices on externalizing behavior: Evidence for a sex-differentiated pathway across the transition from preschool to school. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2010; 39(1):71-81. doi: 10.1007/s10802-010-9437-7 [DOI:10.1007/s10802-010-9437-7]
8. Flouri E. Fathering and child outcomes. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons; 2005. [DOI:10.1002/9780470713228]
9. Kiff CJ, Lengua LJ, Zalewski M. Nature and nurturing: Parenting in the context of child temperament. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review. 2011; 14(3):251-301. doi: 10.1007/s10567-011-0093-4 [DOI:10.1007/s10567-011-0093-4]
10. Madigan S, Atkinson L, Laurin K, Benoit D. Attachment and internalizing behavior in early childhood: A meta-analysis. Developmental Psychology. 2013; 49(4):672-89. doi: 10.1037/a0028793 [DOI:10.1037/a0028793]
11. Krishnakumar A, Buehler C. Interparental conflict and parenting behaviors: A meta-analytic review. Family Relations. 2000; 49(1):25-44. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3729.2000.00025.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1741-3729.2000.00025.x]
12. Fowers BJ, Olson DH. Enrich Marital Inventory: A discriminant validity and cross-validation assessment. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy. 1989; 15(1):65-79. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-0606.1989.tb00777.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1752-0606.1989.tb00777.x]
13. Rehman RR, Waheed A. Work-family conflict and organizational commitment: Study of faculty members in Pakistani universities. Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. 2012; 10(1):23-6.
14. Gross JJ, John OP. Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2003; 85(2):348-62. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348 [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348]
15. Parent J, Forehand R, Merchant MJ, Edwards MC, Conners-Burrow NA, Long N, et al. The relation of harsh and permissive discipline with child disruptive behaviors: Does child gender make a difference in an at-risk sample? Journal of Family Violence. 2011; 26(7):527-33. doi: 10.1007/s10896-011-9388-y [DOI:10.1007/s10896-011-9388-y]
16. Woolfson L, Grant E. Authoritative parenting and parental stress in parents of pre-school and older children with developmental disabilities. Child: Care, Health and Development. 2006; 32(2):177-84. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2214.2006.00603.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2214.2006.00603.x]
17. Luster T, Okagaki L. Parenting: An ecological perspective. Abingdon: Routledge; 2006.
18. Grusec JE, Hastings PD. Handbook of socialization: Theory and research. New York: Guilford Publications; 2008.
19. Jenkins JM, Rasbash J, O'connor TG. The role of the shared family context in differential parenting. Developmental Psychology. 2003; 39(1):99-113. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.39.1.99 [DOI:10.1037/0012-1649.39.1.99]
20. Bates JE, Pettit GS. Temperament, parenting, and socialization. In: Grusec JE, Hastings PD, editor. Handbook of Socialization: Theory and Research. New York: Guilford Press; 2007.
21. Clark LA, Kochanska G, Ready R. Mothers' personality and its interaction with child temperament as predictors of parenting behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2000; 79(2):274-85. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.79.2.274 [DOI:10.1037//0022-3514.79.2.274]