Volume 16, Issue 1 (March 2018)                   IRJ 2018, 16(1): 55-60 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

1- Substance Abuse and Dependence Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2- Department of Biostatistics, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3- Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
4- Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (402 Views)
Objectives: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a health problem among patients undergoing rehabilitation through methadone maintenance treatment in Iran, the most populous Persian Gulf country. The study aimed to examine gender differences among a group of methadone maintenance treatment patients with HCV problem.
Methods: Overall 150 patients (n=75 men, n=75 women) were enrolled from nine methadone clinics in Tehran. The study was conducted between July 2013 and June 2014. Participants of the two genders were compared in baseline characteristics, perceived stress, social support, coping strategies and mental health.
Results: Men were more likely to report being currently on parole than women (χ²(1)=9.23). Age of first illicit drug use was significantly higher among men than women (t(121)=2.43). Men were more likely to report drug injection in the last 12 months compared with women (χ²(1)=4.62). Men were more likely to report criminal charges (t(121)=2.21) and being in correctional facilities (χ²(1)=5.32) compared with women. Women reported higher levels of emotion-focused coping than men. Despite women reporting more social support [4.20(0.79)], they also reported higher levels of emotion-focused coping [2.66(0.55)] than men. Women were more likely to have a current mental health disorder (χ²(1)=8.15) than men.
Discussion: The study results demonstrated some gender differences in baseline characteristics and psychological problems. Such differences may have important impacts on methadone treatment outcomes. Further studies are suggested.
Full-Text [PDF 533 kb]   (110 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (36 Views)  
Type of Study: Original Research Articles | Subject: Addiction
Received: 2017/09/4 | Accepted: 2018/01/3 | Published: 2018/03/1

1. Nelson PK, Mathers BM, Cowie B, Hagan H, Des Jarlais D, Horyniak D, et al. Global epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in people who inject drugs: Results of systematic reviews. Lancet. 2011; 378(9791):571-83. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(11)61097-0 [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61097-0]
2. Thein HH, Yi Q, Dore GJ, Krahn MD. Estimation of stage‐specific fibrosis progression rates in chronic hepatitis C virus infection: A meta‐analysis and meta‐regression. Hepatology. 2008; 48(2):418-31. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.22375 [DOI:10.1002/hep.22375]
3. Samimi-Rad K, Toosi MN, Masoudi-nejad A, Najafi A, Rahimnia R, Asgari F, et al. Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis C virus among injection drug users in Iran: a slight change in prevalence of HCV genotypes over time. Archives of Virology. 2012; 157(10):1959-65. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-012-1369-9 [DOI:10.1007/s00705-012-1369-9]
4. Kheirandish P, SeyedAlinaghi S, Jahani M, Shirzad H, Ahmadian MS, Majidi A, et al. Prevalence and correlates of hepatitis C infection among male injection drug users in detention, Tehran, Iran. Journal of Urban Health. 2009; 86(6):902-8. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11524-009-9393-0 [DOI:10.1007/s11524-009-9393-0]
5. Rezaie F, Noroozi A, Armoon B, Farhoudian A, Massah O, Sharifi H, et al. Social determinants and hepatitis C among people who inject drugs in Kermanshah, Iran: Socioeconomic status, homelessness, and sufficient syringe coverage. Journal of Substance Use. 2017; 22(5):474-78. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14659891.2016.1245793 [DOI:10.1080/14659891.2016.1245793]
6. Alam-Mehrjerdi Z, Moradi A, Xu F, Zarghami M, Salehi-Fadardi J, Dolan K. Willingness to receive treatment for hepatitis c among injecting drug users on methadone program: implications for education and treatment. Addiction & Health. 2016; 8(2):90-7. PMID: 27882206 [PMID] [PMCID]
7. Alavian SM, Mirahmadizadeh A, Javanbakht M, Keshtkaran A, Heidari A, Mashayekhi A, et al. Effectiveness of methadone maintenance treatment in prevention of hepatitis C virus transmission among injecting drug users. Hepatitis monthly. 2013; 13(8):e12411. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/doi: 10.5812/hepatmon.12411. [DOI:10.5812/hepatmon.12411]
8. Javadi A, Ataei B, Kassaian N, Nokhodian Z, Yaran M. Co-infection of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C and hepatitis B virus among injection drug users in Drop in centers. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2014; 19(Suppl 1):17-21. PMCID: PMC4078381
9. Strain EC, Bigelow GE, Liebson IA, Stitzer ML. Moderate-vs high-dose methadone in the treatment of opioid dependence: a randomized trial. JAMA. 1999; 281(11):1000-5. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.281.11.1000 [DOI:10.1001/jama.281.11.1000]
10. Schaefer M, Mauss S. Hepatitis C treatment in patients with drug addiction: Clinical management of interferon-alpha-associated psychiatric side effects. Current Drug Abuse Reviewse. 2008; 1(2):177-87. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874473710801020177 [DOI:10.2174/1874473710801020177]
11. Pu L, Su Y, Wang G, Bai J. [Prevalence of HIV and HCV infections in patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment in Kaiyuan, Yunnan (Chinese)]. Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi. 2015; 36(8):829-31. PMID: 26714537 [PMID]
12. Midgard H, Bramness JG, Skurtveit S, Haukeland JW, Dalgard O. Hepatitis C treatment uptake among patients who have received opioid substitution treatment: A population-based study. PLOS ONE. 2016; 11(11):e0166451. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166451 [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0166451]
13. Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R. A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1983; 24(4):385-96. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136404 [DOI:10.2307/2136404]
14. Carver CS. You want to measure coping but your protocol'too long: Consider the brief cope. International journal of behavioral medicine. 1997; 4(1):92-100. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327558ijbm0401_6 [DOI:10.1207/s15327558ijbm0401_6]
15. Sherbourne CD, Stewart AL. The MOS social support survey. Social Science & Medicine. 1991; 32(6):705-14. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(91)90150-b [DOI:10.1016/0277-9536(91)90150-B]
16. Shi J, Zhao LY, Epstein DH, Zhao C, Shuai Y, Yan B, et al. The effect of methadone maintenance on illicit opioid use, human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infection, health status, employment, and criminal activity among heroin abusers during 6 months of treatment in china. Journal of Addiction Medicine. 2007; 1(4):186-90. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/adm.0b013e318156cc19 [DOI:10.1097/ADM.0b013e318156cc19]
17. Overbeck K, Dufour JF, Muellhaupt B, Helbling B, Borovicka J, Malinverni R, et al. Impact of international consensus guidelines on antiviral therapy of chronic hepatitis C patients in Switzerland. Swiss Medical Weekly. 2010; 140(9-10):146-52. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/smw-12928. [PMID]
18. Norouzian H, Gholami M, Shakib P, Goudarzi G, Diali HG, Rezvani A. Prevalence of HCV infections and co-infection with HBV and HIV and associated risk factors among addicts in drug treatment centers, Lorestan Province, Iran. International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction. 2016; 5(1): e25028. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/ijhrba.25028 [DOI:10.5812/ijhrba.25028]
19. Noroozi M, Mirzazadeh A, Noroozi A, Sharifi H, Higgs P, Jorjoran-Shushtari Z, et al. Injecting and sexual networks and sociodemographic factors and dual HIV risk among people who inject drugs: A cross-sectional study in Kermanshah Province, Iran. Addiction & Health. 2016; 8(3):186-94. PMID: 28496957 [PMID] [PMCID]
20. Batki SL, Canfield KM, Ploutz‐Snyder R. Psychiatric and substance use disorders among methadone maintenance patients with chronic hepatitis C infection: effects on eligibility for hepatitis C treatment. The American Journal on Addictions. 2011; 20(4):312-8. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1521-0391.2011.00139.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1521-0391.2011.00139.x]
21. Wang Z, Du J, Zhao M, Page K, Xiao Z, Mandel JS. Hepatitis C virus infection is independently associated with depression among methadone maintenance treatment heroin users in China. Asia‐Pacific Psychiatry. 2013; 5(3):191-6. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1758-5872.2012.00209.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1758-5872.2012.00209.x]
22. Lee TSH, Shen HC, Wu WH, Huang CW, Yen MY, Wang BE, et al. Clinical characteristics and risk behavior as a function of HIV status among heroin users enrolled in methadone treatment in northern Taiwan. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy. 2011; 6(1):6. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1747-597x-6-6 [DOI:10.1186/1747-597X-6-6]
23. Sakoman S. [Prevention and treatment of hepatitis C in illicit drug users (Croatian)]. Acta medica Croatica. 2009; 63(5):437-42. PMID: 20198904 [PMID]
24. Massah O, Effatpanah M, Moradi A, Salehi M, Farhoudian A. Barriers to Hepatitis Treatment among Women in Methadone Treatment: A Study from Iran, the Most Populous Persian Gulf Country. Addiction and Health. In press.