Volume 15, Number 1 (March 2017 2017)                   IRJ 2017, 15(1): 15-22 | Back to browse issues page

DOI: 10.18869/nrip.irj.15.1.15

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Khodabakhshi-Koolaee A, Mosalanejad L, Gholami M, Massah O. Effectiveness of Group Hope Therapy on the Psychological Indicators in Women With Addicted Husbands. IRJ. 2017; 15 (1) :15-22
URL: http://irj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-687-en.html

1- Department of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Khatam University, Tehran, Iran.
2- Associated Professor Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.
3- MSc Department of Language, School of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.
4- MD Substance Abuse and Dependence Research Center, University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
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1. Introduction
Undoubtedly, nowadays, addiction is one of the factors that undermines the foundation of the family and makes family problems. The condition is deteriorated when the wives of the addicted people get aware of their husbands’ conditions. In such circumstances, the wives of the addicts lose their hope of life, their psychological well-beings are subject to disturbances, social relations and the quality of life are impaired and sadness, grief, loneliness, shame and lack of psychological security would dominate their lives [1]. 
Among psychological treatments, the Snyder hope therapy is the only treatment which considers hope as the main goal of treatment. Snyder, the founder of the hope-base treatment theory defines hope as a structure containing two concepts: The ability to design passes toward desired goals despite obstacles or motivating factor for using these passes [2]. Hope therapy is a solution-focus therapy and treatment of a story or narrative [3].
Psychologists have embraced that hope, like goal and optimism, can have an effect on the physical and mental diseases [4]. Hope therapy based on positive psychological approach considers the person’s ability instead of focusing solely on human weaknesses [5-7]. From Snyder’s view, boredom and frustration are related with the lack of goal realization which eclipses the person’s meaning of life [8-12]. 
In fact, hope therapy is a treatment plan designed to enhance hopeful thinking and strengthen activities related to following goals. In this treatment, the participants learn how to (a) determine the important, achievable, and measurable goals, (b) determine multiple pathways to move towards these goals (c) identify the sources of motivation and interaction of each obstacle on motivation (d) review progress toward the goal, and (e) modify goals and pathways, if necessary [13-15].
Researchers have found that group consultation through hope therapy has high efficacy in determining goals. When a person sets a goal for himself so that it is worth to try hard to reach it, life turns much more meaningful to him. All of these factors are useful in order to promote mental health and psychological well-being [15, 16]. Various studies have shown that hope is directly related to positive goals [17]. Hope therapy, either individually or in group, has promoted the meaning of life, and has significantly improved the treatment of disease. In the study of some researchers on hope-base interventions on adults with depression, it has been shown that this treatment leads to depression and anxiety reduction, increase self-esteem and increases hope [18-20].
Setting goal in life is one of the axis that seems to have changed with hope therapy and hope-base intervention. In fact, the goal-setting theory emphasizes the fact that purposeful people work efficiently than undetermined ones and people with challenging goals perform better than those with easy goals [21]. 
“Meaning of life” is also one of the most important philosophical, psychological, and religious issues in the modern and the industrialization era of societies and all-round development of science and technology [22]. Meaning of life and its place for being happy are irrefutable and undeniable. Several research findings have shown that meaning of life is an essential element in the psychological-emotional well-being and is systematically associated with different aspects of personality, physical and mental health, stress adaptation, religion and religious activities and behavioral disorders. [23-25].
In the studies recently conducted, no specific study has been carried out in this field generally, and in Iranian society in particular, to assess the orientation of the purpose and meaning of life in women with addicted husbands and the effectiveness of group hope therapy. Therefore, the aim of this study is to answer the question of what the effects of group hope therapy and life orientation are in women with addicted husbands.
2. Methods
The present research was a quasi-experimental study with pre-test post-test and control group. The population of this study included all wives of male addicted patients who referred to drug rehabilitation institutions in Tehran to treat their husbands’ addiction in 2014. The sample size was 30 people and convenience samplings were applied to analyze the data.
Sampling was carried out in such a way that those clients who had addicted husbands and referred to clinic for treatment and consultation were given the questionnaires of goal orientation and meaning of life. 30 with low scores were chosen. Fifteen were assigned voluntarily in control group and 15 in experimental group. To carry out quasi- experimental research, we needed at least 12 participants in each groups, therefore, researchers selected 13 participants for present study. The experimental group received eight sessions of hope therapy. The researcher held three sessions of training for three days for the control group after the end of the study for ethical considerations. In this study, the Fraser, Steger, Oishi and Kaller (2006) questionnaire of meaning of life, and goal orientation questionnaire of Elliot and McGregor (2011) were used.
Meaning of Life Questionnaire (Steger, Frasier, Oishi and Kaller)
The scale of meaning of life by Fraser, Steger, Oishi, and Kaller (2006) were offered to assess the meaning of life and try to find it. Validity, reliability, and factor structure of the questionnaires had been examined in different studies with different samples. The scale of meaning of life consists of two subscales that evaluates the meaning of life and seeks to find the meaning. According to the study of Steger et al (2006), the reliability of subscales was 0.70 and 0.73 respectively [26].

Goal Orientation Questionnaire (Elliott and McGregor)
Questionnaire to measure the dimension of goal orientation was prepared on four-dimensional model by Elliot and McGregor and consisted of 12 items, so that every three items measures an orientation and each item is a 7-part on Likert scale. Using factor analysis, Elliot and McGregor (2001) extracted four factors which explored 81.5% of the total variance [27]. Both questionnaires are used in Iran and many researchers reported reliability and validity of them [28-30]. proposal extracted from paper approved in ethical committee. Ethical consideration was considered by using questionnaires and group therapy in people. 
Interventions sessions
In this treatment, the participants first learn the basics of the theory of hope and then they were taught how to apply these principles in their lives [31, 32] (Table 1). Finalizing the interventions sessions, the participants responded to the questionnaires again after one week. To consider the ethical research codes, the interventions were implemented to the control group after the end of research. 
Data analysis
Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used for statistical analysis. Methods such as mean, standard deviation, frequency and percentage were used for descriptive statistics. To analyze the hypothesis, ANCOVA was used and then based on the significance level (sig), hypotheses were examined. SPSS software version 20 was used to analyze results.
The followings were taken into consideration as moral criteria used in this study: Avoiding making subjects participate in the research, conducting three sessions of group therapy for the control group after completion of the research, and commitment to confidentiality of the participants’ data.
3. Results
Given the information in the Table 2, in the experimental group, most of the participants (46.66%) were between the ages 31 to 35 years and the lowest (6.66%) were between the ages of 41 to 45 years. In the control group, most of the participants (33.33%) were between ages 25 to 35 years and the lowest (6.66%) were between the ages of 41 to 45 years. The average ages of the experimental group and the control group were 34.73 and 33.86 respectively (Table 2).
All variables of orientation of purpose and meaning of life had significant increase in post-test in experimental group, but in the control group, this change does not seem much significant despite an increase in post-test (Table 3).

The results of the Table 4 show that by adjusting the pre-test scores, there is a significant effect among participants (P<0.05). It can be said that group hope therapy is effective in women with addicted husbands on the orientation of the purpose and meaning of life (Table 4). Also covariance analysis show this difference is 0.924 for orientation and 0.930 for meaning of life (Table 4).
4. Discussion
The results indicated that wives of experimental group had higher scores in goal orientation and meaning of life than the other group. These findings were consistent with the results of Kashani et al. [33]. Aladini and Kajbaf reported that the hope therapy results boosted hope and mental health and reduced social dysfunction and depression in depressed women [32]. Hope therapy led to distress reduction with the aim of creating hope in the persons. Because of the goals in life, describing future once more and the significance of this life are considered the main concepts of life and increases comfort and energy in people [34, 35].
On the other hand, hopefuls take lesson from adverse events instead of focusing on them and use them to pursue future goals [36]. Based on what was mentioned, hopefuls show greater commitment towards mental health, life satisfaction, and greater adaptability in case of encountering challenges and seek help from multiple support sources and consequently, experience less distress and mental challenges [37]. According to Feldman and Snyder, psychologists can consider hope structure as a psychological positive point. They believe this structure can help the development of mental health [38].
 Hope consists of two cognitive and emotional components. Cognitive component includes the expecting events to occur in the future and the emotional component considers these events positively which have effective and favorable outcomes. Emotional component can be a predictor of positive events in the future and consequently increases meaning life [39]. Adults, who are benefiting from high levels of hope, look at others as sources of support and reliance [40]. They also believe they can adapt more in case they encounter challenges in their lives, experience greater happiness, and are more satisfied with their lives [41, 42]. To implement the present study, the researchers faced barriers that limited generalizability of the results to other research. These obstacles included first, guidance and coordination of the participants in holding group therapy classes. Second, the measurement tools of the questionnaire are subjective.
5. Conclusion
The results revealed that the hope therapy intervention could raise the psychological positive elements like goal setting and the meaning of life among wives of male addicted patients. Rehabilitation counselors and psychologists could apply these interventions to reduce the burden and disturbance of those who live with their addicted couples.
This study had several practical suggestions: first, group therapy sessions were held for families of clients in an attempt to improve their quality of life in the rehab camp. Second, in addition to clients, the wives of clients were also evaluated in clinical trials to be directed in the case of any problem in drug rehabilitation camps. Third, it is suggested that the research topic be carried out in other regions (with different traditions and culture) considering the importance of this group. And forth, it is recommended that further research carry out on the effectiveness of hope therapy with other psychological variables such as self-esteem, self-confidence, stress, etc.
This paper is extracted from a study which was approved and financialy supported by Khatam University. The researchers’ thanks are due to all the participants and drug rehabilitation institutions in Tehran for their cooperation and support.

Conflict of Interest
The authors declared no conflict of interests.

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Type of Study: Original Research Articles | Subject: Addiction
Received: 2016/09/14 | Accepted: 2016/12/7 | Published: 2017/03/1

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