Volume 15, Issue 4 (December 2017)                   IRJ 2017, 15(4): 325-332 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Asghari M, Karimzadeh M, Teymouri R. Relationship Between Using Television and Behavioral Problems of Pre-School Children. IRJ. 2017; 15 (4) :325-332
URL: http://irj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-749-en.html
1- Department of Preschool Education, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2- Pediatric Neurorehabilitation Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (431 Views)
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the use of television and behavioral problems in children. 
Methods: This is a descriptive and correlational research. The statistical population of the study included 4- to 6-year-old pre-school children in Tehran who were selected using multi-stage cluster sampling. A sample of 150 children was selected. The subjects responded to two questionnaires of Rutter’s behavioral problems and a researcher-made questionnaire on the extent of using electronic devices. Data were analyzed using SPSS 22 software in two sections: descriptive (tables and diagrams) and inferential statistics (univariate and multivariate analysis of variance and one-way and two-way Chi-square tests).
Results: The findings showed that there was a relationship between the use of television with isolation and anxiety in 4- to 6-year-old children. There was no significant relationship between having a personal computer and the time spent in watching television, but overall, the percentages of the total results indicated that children who did not have computers spent more hours watching television. Further, there was no significant relationship between the number of hours spent for playing with children and the time spent for watching television, but the results represented that children who played more than 2 hours spent less time watching television. However, there was a significant difference in aggressive behavior, neglect and childish behavior, but no significant difference in isolation and anxiety between children watching foreign movies and cartoons and those who watched Iranian movies and cartoons.
Discussion: It seems that decreasing children’s television watching can prevent behavioral problems.
Full-Text [PDF 501 kb]   (198 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (31 Views)  
Type of Study: Original Research Articles | Subject: Psychology
Received: 2017/05/12 | Accepted: 2017/08/9 | Published: 2017/12/1

1. Allen JG, Fonagy P. The handbook of mentalization-based treatment. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons; 2006. [DOI:10.1002/9780470712986]
2. Atella LD, DiPietro JA, Smith BA, St James-Roberts I. More than meets the eye: Parental and infant contributors to maternal and paternal reports of early infant difficultness. Parenting: Science and Practice. 2003; 3(4):265-84. doi: 10.1207/s15327922par0304_1 [DOI:10.1207/s15327922par0304_1]
3. Van Bakel HJ, Riksen-Walraven JM. Parenting and development of one-year-olds: links with parental, contextual, and child characteristics. Child Development. 2002; 73(1):256-73. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00404 [DOI:10.1111/1467-8624.00404]
4. Blandon AY, Calkins SD, Keane SP, O'brien M. Contributions of child's physiology and maternal behavior to children's trajectories of temperamental reactivity. Developmental Psychology. 2010; 46(5):1089-1102. doi: 10.1037/a0020678 [DOI:10.1037/a0020678]
5. Belsky J. The determinants of parenting: A process model. Child Development. 1984; 55(1):83-96. doi: 10.2307/1129836 [DOI:10.2307/1129836]
6. Carpenter JL, Mendez J. Adaptive and challenged parenting among African American mothers: Parenting profiles relate to head start children's aggression and hyperactivity. Early Education & Development. 2013; 24(2):233-52. doi: 10.1080/10409289.2013.749762 [DOI:10.1080/10409289.2013.749762]
7. Chang H, Olson SL, Sameroff AJ, Sexton HR. Child effortful control as a mediator of parenting practices on externalizing behavior: Evidence for a sex-differentiated pathway across the transition from preschool to school. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2010; 39(1):71-81. doi: 10.1007/s10802-010-9437-7 [DOI:10.1007/s10802-010-9437-7]
8. Flouri E. Fathering and child outcomes. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons; 2005. [DOI:10.1002/9780470713228]
9. Kiff CJ, Lengua LJ, Zalewski M. Nature and nurturing: Parenting in the context of child temperament. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review. 2011; 14(3):251-301. doi: 10.1007/s10567-011-0093-4 [DOI:10.1007/s10567-011-0093-4]
10. Madigan S, Atkinson L, Laurin K, Benoit D. Attachment and internalizing behavior in early childhood: A meta-analysis. Developmental Psychology. 2013; 49(4):672-89. doi: 10.1037/a0028793 [DOI:10.1037/a0028793]
11. Krishnakumar A, Buehler C. Interparental conflict and parenting behaviors: A meta-analytic review. Family Relations. 2000; 49(1):25-44. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3729.2000.00025.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1741-3729.2000.00025.x]
12. Fowers BJ, Olson DH. Enrich Marital Inventory: A discriminant validity and cross-validation assessment. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy. 1989; 15(1):65-79. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-0606.1989.tb00777.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1752-0606.1989.tb00777.x]
13. Rehman RR, Waheed A. Work-family conflict and organizational commitment: Study of faculty members in Pakistani universities. Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. 2012; 10(1):23-6.
14. Gross JJ, John OP. Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2003; 85(2):348-62. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348 [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348]
15. Parent J, Forehand R, Merchant MJ, Edwards MC, Conners-Burrow NA, Long N, et al. The relation of harsh and permissive discipline with child disruptive behaviors: Does child gender make a difference in an at-risk sample? Journal of Family Violence. 2011; 26(7):527-33. doi: 10.1007/s10896-011-9388-y [DOI:10.1007/s10896-011-9388-y]
16. Woolfson L, Grant E. Authoritative parenting and parental stress in parents of pre-school and older children with developmental disabilities. Child: Care, Health and Development. 2006; 32(2):177-84. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2214.2006.00603.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2214.2006.00603.x]
17. Luster T, Okagaki L. Parenting: An ecological perspective. Abingdon: Routledge; 2006.
18. Grusec JE, Hastings PD. Handbook of socialization: Theory and research. New York: Guilford Publications; 2008.
19. Jenkins JM, Rasbash J, O'connor TG. The role of the shared family context in differential parenting. Developmental Psychology. 2003; 39(1):99-113. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.39.1.99 [DOI:10.1037/0012-1649.39.1.99]
20. Bates JE, Pettit GS. Temperament, parenting, and socialization. In: Grusec JE, Hastings PD, editor. Handbook of Socialization: Theory and Research. New York: Guilford Press; 2007.
21. Clark LA, Kochanska G, Ready R. Mothers' personality and its interaction with child temperament as predictors of parenting behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2000; 79(2):274-85. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.79.2.274 [DOI:10.1037//0022-3514.79.2.274]

Send email to the article author

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb