Volume 13, Number 2 (June 2015)                   IRJ 2015, 13(2): 10-15 | Back to browse issues page


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Karami Z, Massah O, Farhoudian A, Oji A. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Opiate and Stimulant Users . IRJ. 2015; 13 (2) :10-15
URL: http://irj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-532-en.html

1- Allameh Tabataba'ei University, Tehran, Iran.
2- Substance Abuse and Dependence Research Center, University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3- Kish International Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kish, Iran.
Abstract:   (1339 Views)

Objectives: Early maladaptive schemas are valid representations of unpleasant childhood experiences that shape a person’s viewpoints of the world, and lead to clinical symptoms such as depression, personality disorders, and substance abuse. Given the importance of this matter, we conducted a research on early maladaptive schemas in substance-abusers, to allow more appropriate preventive measures to be taken with a better understanding of the issue.

Methods: For this descriptive-comparative study, 115 patients (91 opiate users and 24 stimulant users) visiting drug addiction treatment centers were selected through convenience sampling from persons who were admitted to substance abuse treatment centers (Methadone Maintenance therapy centers), addiction treatment camps and self-help groups and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) of Yasuj. Data were collected using a Demographic Information Questionnaire and Young’s Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF). Data analysis was done with ANOVA and t-tests.

Results: The results showed a significant difference (P<0.05) between users of opiates and stimulants in terms of vulnerability to harm or illness, enmeshment, subjugation, emotional inhibition, entitlement, insufficient self-control/self-discipline, emotional  deprivation, social isolation, defectiveness, failure/shame, and dependence. The average score of the stimulant-users was higher than that of opiate-users in all the schemas except for the dimensions of abandonment, mistrust, and unrelenting standards.

Discussion: Stimulant users have more early maladaptive schemas and are at a greater risk of psychological vulnerability. Early maladaptive schemas can be used by clinicians and researchers as a psychopathology and treatment method for substance dependence disorder.

Full-Text [PDF 99 kb]   (545 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original Research Articles |
Received: 2015/04/21 | Accepted: 2015/05/18 | Published: 2015/06/1

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